Fetomaternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT) is caused by human platelet (PLT) antigen (HPA) incompatibility. Beads coupled with recombinant β3 integrins, displaying the biallelic HPA-1 epitopes (rHPA-1), have been shown to detect HPA-1a alloantibodies implicated in FMAIT. This report describes a multicenter validation of the beads using the results of well-characterized samples to define the optimum parameters for analysis of a large cohort of 498 clinical samples.
Study Design and Methods
Fifty-one blinded quality assurance (QA) samples were tested by six laboratories to standardize the rHPA-1 bead assay and to develop an algorithm for sample classification. Five laboratories retrieved samples from 498 independent FMAIT cases, previously tested by the monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of PLT antigens (MAIPA) assay, from their local archives for testing with the rHPA-1 beads. The results were evaluated using a mathematical algorithm developed to classify the samples.
The QA samples gave a mean concordance of 94% between the bead and MAIPA assays, while 97% concordance was observed with the FMAIT samples. Of the 15 discrepant samples, seven were positive by the beads but negative by MAIPA, while the contrary was observed for eight samples. Overall, the bead assay achieved 98% sensitivity for HPA-1a antibody detection in FMAIT and 98.7% specificity compared to the local MAIPA.
The rHPA-1 bead assay is a rapid 3-hour assay for the sensitive detection of HPA-1 antibodies. Its ease of use would enable prompt detection of maternal HPA-1a antibodies in suspected FMAIT cases, which is important supportive evidence for treatment by transfusion with HPA-1b1b PLTs.